Thursday, June 11, 2009

Sharon Velasquez
Professor Anna Scott

Team Brazil and Pro-Immigration

The team that I was a part of was named Brazil, and we decided our theme would be pro-immigration. Throughout our performance, we incorporated many Orishas and their respective movements when we believed they would help emphasize the statement or experience we were trying to enact. We all took an active role in our group, and each of us was in charge of things such as choreography, music, costumes, props, and in my case, I was the director. With each of our roles in the team, we included elements that supported out theme throughout our presentation. For this reason, I believe our theme was successfully interrogated by our performance.
The choreography was the most important element in our performance because it made our theme of pro-immigration clear but also told a story. In our presentation, we included Orishas such as Omolu and Lemanja. At the beginning of our performance, the guys in our group moved their arms to represent machetes and walked off before the girls, to represent them leaving and working. The girls, who began walking afterwards, began sewing, a gesture of Lemanja, to represent them working back home. When we got to the pavement, we began chanting “immigrants united for justice” and we began swinging our arms and walking in a single file. We incorporated movements like mirrors, by using our hands, because this symbolized what the immigrants are at the moment and what they dream of becoming in the future. We decided to include a “border” created by Yesenia and I, and this was one of the most symbolic elements in our performance. This was when the immigrants would actually cross and we incorporated gestures of Omolu, to represent sunburns. People were not allowed to pass and left behind, but they returned to try crossing again. Their determination allowed them to cross and when everybody reached the other side, we had a type of “celebration”. During the party, we included props and whistles just like in Brazilian carnivals.
The music was perfect for our performance because it was Brazilian music and it complemented our performance as we had timed it. When we did not have music, such as in the beginning, we used whistles and one of our team members brought a wooden instrument. We also incorporated the whistles because they were used several times in our song. We also used a chant, “immigrants united for justice” to represent immigrants struggling for their rights and against injustices, such as discrimination.
For our costumes, we used the color white, which we took stand for neutrality and peace. We wanted to wear white as a peaceful color because some types of people take a defensive stance against immigrants or scorn them. We also wore plain jeans, tennis shoes, and colorful beads, which are used in carnivals.
Throughout this process, I learned quite a lot about myself. When we formed a group, I was not sure what job or role I wanted to have in this team. However, as time went by I decided I wanted to become the director, which surprised me. Part of the reason for my decision was that I care immensely about my grades and I knew that I wanted to do an excellent job. Usually, I am not the leader type of person, but I decided to give myself a chance. I feel that being the director was the perfect job because I felt a need to come out of my shell, and I did. I openly expressed my ideas, I felt I had a responsibility in my team, and I definetly grew more confident. I also had a chance to know the people in my group even better and I gained great friends. I also learned to appreciate the class and lessons even more because we had to apply them to our performance.
If we were to continue with the piece, there are a few things I would add. We changed our performance quite a lot, but only because we felt it would improve our performance. I think I would definitely have timed it a bit more and I would have included face paint or other things used in carnivals. Overall, I believe we did a good job because we put a lot of creativity and effort into our performance .
By applying the course material, I think I grew to understand it even more. We had to understand it in order to apply it and be precise in doing so. What I learned is that the gestures of Orishas are very important and its best if they are applied to circumstances relevant to them. I definitely learned to appreciate it more because I had never heard of Orishas before. Learning about the stories and gestures made me gain a better understanding of all this information that I think would not have been possible if I had not gotten an opportunity to perform them.
In conclusion, I believe our theme was successfully interrogated by our performance. I enjoyed learning about new cultures, religions, and ideas, and being a part of this class was a great experience. At the beginning, I was a bit hesitant about being a part of this class because I am not the best dancer. However, this class showed me there was nothing wrong with trying new and different things. In conclusion, this class has been a great experience which allowed me to express myself through dance by using movements and gestures.
Katerin Canales
Professor Anna Scott
June 11, 2009
The Representation of Movements
During our parade, we decided to incorporate movements that would represent the struggles that immigrants all around the world go through to get to the United States. Some of the movements were copied from the Orishas just without a little bit of changes in the meaning. Our goal was for people to think about the process of what an immigrant leaves behind, their struggles, and what they mostly do when they arrive.
Our first movement, which was the circle, represented how the family is united before a member makes the decision of crossing to the United States. It also represents the world in a way that there are people immigrating all around it. Once a member decides to go on the journey of crossing, the circle breaks up meaning that the family has separated. The samba, since we thought it was one of the hardest to do, we decide to use it as a way of letting people know how hard it is to make such a decision of leaving your family behind. The movement that followed was the dipping while holding each other closely. This meant how the family follows through though times. The next movement that followed was the threading for the women and the machete for the men. The men were first in line because it represented how the men tend to leave to work first. The women most likely stayed at home doing chores and that was threading represented. In the pavement we decided to form a line and chant as well as using our fist, “imigrantes unidos por justicia,” which meant, “immigrants united for justice.” It represented how all type of immigrants unites every day to have a better life. They fight for their rights and justice in a non-violent way. Immigrants cross over because they need a better job that pays more to afford their family. Our next movement included the mirror. This movement was gotten from the Orisha Oxum. The mirror in the left hand represented the things and the people they were leaving behind. The right hand represented the future that is waiting for them on the other side of the border. The movement of the hands moving as if we were swimming represents how in some immigrants have to cross the ocean by swimming. Two of our dancers were standing in front to represent the border. They opened and closed their hands representing who will pass and who will need to try again. The rest of the dancers were moving their hands like the Orisha, Omulu movemet. The representation of the movement in our dance was to signify the sunburn the immigrants get from too much time spend on the dessert and the sun. It shows how much they suffer going through the struggle. The dance that we presented at the end, after crossing the border, was a way of showing how the immigrants celebrate after crossing. The raising of the arms signified abundance. After going through so much struggle and pain, they celebrate as they can and many time reunite with their own family.
While doing the parade I learned that many movements can mean different things. It is just the matter of how you incorporate them into your theme. It is also important the way that you show the moves because if you do them sloppy or in another way, they might mean something else. I also realize that the best part in this is to trust your team mates. Everybody should learn their own part and trust the rest to do their part so the parade would come out right. At the beginning of the class when the professor had just announced we were going to have a parade as a final, I freaked out. I thought I was not going to be able to do it. At the end of the parade I felt like nothing, like I was able to do it again. I think that the professor and the class brought confidence in me. I really enjoyed everything that we performed in the class.
Brazil performs for Pro-Immigration

Throughout the entire school year the most exciting final I have done was creating a parade. What made this final most exciting was the fact that it had to be created by my group and myself from scratch. My group’s name was Brazil and our performance was based on immigration, pro immigration. We decided to make it pro immigration because each and every one of us, relating to my group and myself, has at least one different ethnic background. Besides being born in America we had parents born in Mexico or Italy. If it was not for our professor, Anna Scott, demonstrating us dance moves throughout the quarter we would have had a lot of difficulties trying to make up dance move. Throughout the entire parade every dance move we utilized came from the dance moves we learned throughout the quarter, but of course we added our own meaning to each move since our theme was pro immigration. For every element—choreography, music, signs, gestures, signs, costume, and props—our group cooperated, we all came up with ideas as a group but towards the end we assigned an element to each individual.
The first element that my group decided to discuss was the costume, in which this case I was assigned to be the costume designer. It did not take us long to decide on our costume because we all agree upon our first choice. We decided to wear white shirts because white represents peace; it signifies a positive vive. Also, we decided on wearing jeans and simple shoes because when an immigrant comes to the United States illegally they do not put much attention in what their wearing. Therefore, our costume came out just how we wanted it to b; plain and simple, but at the same time it has significance, each and every part.
The next element we decided to knowledge was our chant. Just like our costume, out chant was not difficult to find. Sharon, a group member, was surfing online looking at pictures of protests that immigrants have done. She noticed that an individual was holding up a poster saying, “Immigrants United for Justice,” right away she decided that it should be our chant. Since our group was pro immigration this chant was perfect. During our parade, we decided to say our chant when we were in the concrete near the fields. While we were chanting it was interesting how people would stop and listen to what we were saying. We were not aware though that we had to say our chant in front of our professor and judges.
Props were the next element to easy to get out of the way. Most of the times that people want to protest they always have some kind of instrument that makes noise. Jennifer, who was in charge of props, brought in whistles because it allows the group to receive attention from audience which was something we were aiming towards. Also, she brought in streams. Honestly at first my group thought they looked cute and cool, but of course we were not going to be able to utilize them for those reasons. We came up with significance, life. The colorful colors represented happiness and joy, feeling immigrants’ posses before leaving their family to start a better future and feeling they posses once they have made it through the border. In our performance in front of our judges, after we had crossed the border, that was when we decided to pull out our streamers and celebrate.
Subsequently, we moved on to the song. Geoff, had one of the songs that Professor Scott had played for the class earlier that quarter. Unfortunately, my group does not recall the name of the song. On the other hand, we decided to go with that song because it was one of the songs played by the professor. We did not use it only because we liked it, but also because it was one of the sings utilized through the quarter.
The last element we decided to work upon was our choreography. This was the last element to achieve because it was the hardest, we would come up with good dance move but we could not find a meaning for them. This is when our group decided to utilize moves the professor had thought us, but only if we were able to put a meaning into it. We began with a circle, which signified unity, and we were dancing samba since it was a dance thought in class. Then we parted and stood besides out partners, we had Geoff and Jorge be the first ones since men are always stereotyped as masculine and protectors, which is mostly why it is the male that leaves the family behind to move to immigrate to this country. Geoff and Jorge began macheting to clear a path for the ladies, while ladies—us—where sowing, which is mostly what women do. Then once we were at the pavement, we began chanting “Immigrants United for Justice,” while we were boxing, because boxing showed that we were preparing for a struggle, which was coming to this country illegally. Going down the ramp we did the mirror sign that was used by Oxúm, one mirror—one hand—represented the future, what immigrants see in coming to this country, while in the other mirror—the other hand—represented what was being left behind. Then we swam our way too the judges, which is how some immigrants come to this country.
Once in front of the judges, Sharon and I became the border; moving our arms in different directions because regulations always change. Then one at a time, each individual approached us trying to cross the border, some succeed but some were sent back home. Some swam their way across, while others jumped the border. After everyone crosses we all made a circle and reunited. We began to samba because once again, this was one of the dances taught in our course. We parted, took out our streamers and began to celebrate the fact that we made it through the border. We exited the judges by performing one of the danced done by lenmanja, we moved our hand from left to right, forward and backwards, which signified agriculture, usually what immigrant go into once in this country.
Throughout this project, I learned things about myself that I did not know. Most importantly, I learned how much the fact that my parents are immigrants has affected my family and me. I also learned that there are many ways that I could express my feelings without having to be verbal, but physical. I enjoyed this project so much that I have been thinking about teaching my younger sibling about the importance of music and dance.

Posted by Yesenia Colmenero

The Journey of Immigration

I had the role of choreographer, along with Kathy. Choosing the theme of immigration meant that my group and I had a lot of steps to choose from. With each dance step we did, we wanted to tell the journey the immigrants must endure each and every day to come to this country. So, not only does every step mean something, it is also the order in which the steps are made that is important. The beginning of our dance signified the beginning of the journey. Every started in a circle, representing unity and the wholeness of immigrant families prior to the male’s arrival to the states. As the circle broke up, so do the families, once their father leaves to go work. After a couple dance steps, we paired up, with Jorge and I at the front of the group. This was to signify the men going off to work, hence the use of Ogum’s machetes. We Left the women behind, temporarily, just as the immigrant fathers do. The women followed doing yemanja’s sewing dance move, this was to signify how many Latin American female immigrants make and sell quilts, textiles, clothing etc.

Reaching the pavement, the group lined up in a single-file line. We all chanted “Immigrants united for justice” while throwing right and left fists. The punches were meant to signify the annual and constant protests that are held for immigrant justice, and a more liberal border policy. After that, we switched up to using yemanja’s dance move of the mirrors (still in single file line). This was to represent the immigrants looking back on their lives as they drew closer and closer to the border. Everything in their life was about to change, so we used the mirrors to show us reflecting on our lives. The next step was to have the group swim, as if to represent those who come across the US-Texas border by crossing the Rio Grande River. We also did this to show that our nation had European immigrants that came by boat centuries ago.

We tried our best to integrate themes and dance moves we learned into class into our routine. Brazilian presence was pretty obvious with our music, use of samba, and orishas. A lot of Brazilian themes were used in the scene of the crossing of the border. This was our main scene and was performed in front of the judges. We used a batucada rhythm from Carnival for our song. Yesenia and Sharron made the border, and made alternated hand gestures to show the complications and constant change of the border. It seems that legal immigration is getting harder and harder to obtain, hence the surplus in illegal immigration as of recent years. Once the border was made and the music started, the single file line in front of the border began to move forward. All of us used a move by Omolu, however we replaced the meaning to symbolize itching sunburns. The sunburns were obviously obtained from the long and difficult journey across the desert made by many Latino immigrants into the states.

Some of the group was stopped by Sharron and Yesenia, just as so many immigrants are sent back all the time. Finally, the whole group made it through the border, forming a circle. This circle was to represent the unity families and friends share once their loved ones make it to the states. We had a short celebratory dance where we danced in a circle. We used Yemanja’s dance of dipping into the water, but we altered it to fit our purpose. Once we dipped our hands down, we brought them back up, showing that once people make it to the states, there’s an abundance of goods available, that is, in comparison to their previous lifestyle. Our exit, after our miniature celebration was once again in single file line. We, yet again, used Yemanja for our dance. This time it was her dance using water (cupping the hands) but for us, we made the hands go a little lower to show the agricultural work that most immigrants are active in.

So not only were the steps in themselves significant and representative of our theme, but also the order that we did them. It started with men leaving the family, and slowly but surely, the whole family following. Then, it moved to border, where we (the immigrants) reflected on our past lives, and new life to come. We were all swimming to get to the border, and had sunburns while waiting to cross. Then we eventually crossed, celebrated, but only for a while, because we have to get to work. And that was how we ended the routine, working, most immigrants in the states never get to retire, and often work in grueling conditions.

The entire experience was full of challenges, yet was extremely fun. I am proud of our group and the work we did as we were much smaller than the rest of the groups. I found that I can definitely get frustrated easily, especially because I imagined everything to play out beautifully, but that was totally unrealistic. We had to make room for error, and our practices helped immensely to the overall performance. I needed to put trust into my team members, because I am someone who typically works solo. The whole ensemble helped me improve my tolerance/patience level, and enforced my love for dancing. I feel that our group did a great job of incorporating Brazilian themes to our subject topic of immigration. Despite many different ideas and sudden location/music changes, our performance turned out great.


While working on what turn out to be “Brazil” not everything was rainbows and butterflies from the start. At the beginning of the process different views and ideas were given. There were a variety of topics in which the Brazil group wanted to perform, but at the end we all agree that immigration was the best. The reason why we decided immigration was the best choice was because we all come from different places of the world but in the end we are all the same. That although we might not look the same, or speak the same languages, we are all in this together and this is what the Brazil group wanted to show others through our performance. I was very pleasant with the theme not only because I understood the concept well, but because I am part of the immigrant population that come to America for a better future.

Immigration was indeed the perfect choice, but when it came to discussing the location of the performance the conflict started. At first we all agree on my suggestion that it was best to perform at MacArthur Pak. The reason I suggested MacArthur Park, was because MacArthur Park is a significant point in which riots against immigrants created chaos and history. I was very please that everyone at first agree, but due to the lack of transportation the idea was ignore. Not only was the lack of transportation a reason the idea was not successful but also certain comments that were said. Some of the comments that certain people said were that MacArthur Park is a dangerous place, and that the people around it are bad. I personally took the comments very seriously because I live two blocks away from the place, but I just decided to ignore what was said and avoid conflict. Thanks to my TA Ryan I was able to let out my anger and I felt a lot better. In the end it all turn out good because the location ended up being at UCR, which I believe was at best for everyone.

As a group member of Brazil my main task was to search for music that identify with our theme of immigration. I was able to find a lot of music, but unfortunately they were all in Spanish. In Spanish there is the existence of “corridos” which are songs that tell a story from beginning to end, and a lot deal with the life of an immigrant. I wanted to use a corrido for our performance but it did not quite fit in with the dancing. Corridos are usually slow, and I figure out that it was not going to makes sense to dance in orisha style with a slow song. Fortunately all my teammates agree that it was best to search for a new song. We all contributed to the searching of a new song and we ended up with the song called “Fanfarra.” This song was the best one not only because it had rhythm but because it was the perfect song for the dance movements we had.

The dance movements were very significant. A lot came from the dances of the orishas, but it was very good because they all had significant points to immigration. Overall, I was very please with the choreography, the music, the customs, and everything else. The big day arrive and Brazil was full of spirit and ready to go. I was very nervous when it was our time to perform, but when I noticed that everybody else was there sharing the same experience with me I knew that I indeed was not alone. Just like my theme of immigration, I notice that CHASS CONNECT was all in this together. That although there were problems at the beginning, in the end nothing matter. Just the fact that we started out with stress and agony, and ended up with a celebration is an experience that I will never forget. I found it very significant that I was able to work with a team fill with completely different ideas that in the end turned out to be the best team I have ever worked with.

Overall, my experience in Brazil helped me grow as a person. I learned a lot of new thing such as working well with others and being able to understand and respect different ideas. At first I was very shy, I was so shy that I was not able to speak up my mind and let me ideas get noticed. It took me a while to understand the concept of raising up my voice, but soon enough to share my ideas with my team Brazil. I never knew that being able to communicate well with others can bring up an incredible experience that in the end makes you grow as a person. I am very thankful that I was able to work with my teammates of Brazil. Thanks to them my experience has been the best and I will never forget them. I am just so grateful with CHASS CONNECT and all the people I meet. Is significant how a simple assignment such as this one of a parade ended being a reflection to my life.

By: Brenda Castro

Brazil a new experience

The theme of my group was Immigration. We were for immigration, in the group I was the one in charge of the props. One of the ideas that came to my mind was that we should use flags during the parade representing where we come for, since our theme was the one of Immigration. One of the other main ideas that I had was to have something that we could hold in our hands while we were performing in the parade. When looking for something that we could we use, I did not find anything, but then when I was at the store, I saw these Hawaiian lies, and I thought they would be perfect if I just cut them and then extend them, so we could use it to make movements with them when it came to the parade. I bought different colors of Hawaiian lies and then I started to cut pieces of the same length and then put 2 straps of different colors, a total of sixteen pieces paired with different colors. I thought that this would bring some life to the parade and also, represent the symbolism of how immigrants are full of energy and life while they are in their path to come to a new country and once they have become part of that new country. Also, as part of other props there was the idea of using a whistle, which also brought some sound to the parade, to make it lively. The theme of immigration went well with the performance that the team Brazil performed the day of the parade. Many of the movements had to do with how they are united, how immigrants come to the new country to do hard work in order to progress in life. Also, the part where we all are crossing the border, that is very symbolic when it comes to expressing how people go from one place to another going through many hardships, but once they are in the new country, they are happy to be alive and get a new chance in life to offer a better life for themselves and their loved ones.
Once I started taking the class and learning about the dancing moves, I noticed that once you start making the moves you can actually speak with your body. The interesting thing was that once we started to work in our groups I realized, that no matter what your theme was many of the movements we learned throughout the course of the class, can be apply and the meaning is not lost. Also, I learned that as time passes and new generations come, these moves will never disappear one way or another they stay alive within the human society. One of the other main things that I learned once going through the experience of making the parade is that music and body language go hand by hand, the music puts the feeling when it comes to the movements to express the body language. Also, during the class we have watched many videos in which people would be dancing in groups, but it is one thing to watch and another to actually live the experience.
When it was first announced that we were to perform a parade, which had to pertain to a major theme, I was very nervous about the assignment. In my personal experience I am a very shy person, and when it comes to doing public speaking or like in the case of performing a parade, I did not feel confident that I was going to be able to perform at my best. As the time passed by and I got together with my group to practice that shyness went away little by little. Just the thought of being in public make me feel dizzy and start to see blurry, this has always been the case when I am in situations that make me nervous. Having the assignment of the parade truly helped me to overcome some of that scariness. It was an amazing experience being part of a parade group and using some of the moves that we learned in the class, to express our views regarding our theme of immigration. Also, as I was living this experience I learned how to work better with other people, and how to use all of our minds to come up with a parade that could successfully communicate to others what we believe in. Once you start to work with a group you start to get to know the members better and to understand one another better. One of the main parts that I liked about working in groups for the parade was that even though at times we had different suggestions and opinions, we were able to work it all out, so that all the members felt satisfied with how the parade was turning out. In addition as the practices for the parade were taking place, I really like the fact that when you are in a group all the different ideas can combine to come up with even greater ideas.
Although the parade was successful as it was, any piece of work can always be improved. If we were to continue working on the parade, I would have added a section in which maybe every member of the group could have wore something that was symbolic of their country and culture. I think this would have made the parade show more of the background of the people that are immigrating all over the world. Although it would only be customs of a few of the countries the symbolism would be there as representing all those people that immigrate to other countries all over the world. One other thing that I would have added would have been more movements that would express how the immigrants feel when they arrive at a new country. One of the things that I would like to cut off would have been when we were about to get to the perform in front of the professor and the rest of the judges, we kept swimming instead at that moment we should start to make different types of movements or dance, but not just stay with the same movements.

By:Jenniffer Avalos

Dancing an Art

In our group, we decided to focus our parade on the issue of immigration. We choose immigration because it is an issue of grand importance, especially in the United States. Although there is much debate on whether immigration should be accepted or not, we all believed that we would support immigration to better tell the story of the hardships which immigrants must go through. Immigration is a broad topic, but we decided to base our dance moves on the struggles and success which some immigrants go through. We tried to incorporate immigrant aspects to our entire performance. We originally wanted to have our performance at a historical place which had valuable meaning to tie in with immigrants. The place we wanted to use as our stage was MacArthur Park. We wanted to perform at this place because of the events which happened there May 1, 2007, a rally calling for U.S citizenship for immigrants. Then we found out that we were to perform on campus. 

Our costumes consisted of white shirts which represented freedom, and peace. Something which immigrants long for. I think it was a good idea to have a common costume, because that way no one is better than anyone, it creates a common ground. Then there were our props, which consisted most importantly of our colorful streamers. We each had one set of streamers for each hand. The streamers represented the beauty of life, and the happiness with which freedom comes. Then we also had such rhythmic instruments as a block of wood and whistles. These assisted us in creating a source which would bring attention to our cause, people react to noise, and since our group only consisted of a small number of people, we needed the assistance of other sources of noise. We also chanted the phrase, “Immigrants united for justice.” 

I believe our dance moves consisted of specific meanings which relate to immigration. For example in our introduction in which we all stood in a circle stomping our feet represented the unity which is needed when attempting to do anything in this case, going into a new land. Then there were such dance steps which very straight-forward like crossing the border. We wanted it to be very clear that some of us which were in a line, representing patience, but at the same time worry and cautiousness while approaching the border. Some of us in our performance were easily able to cross the border, while others had difficulty crossing. The most important part about this scene was that when a person was refused entry, they were consistent and attempted crossing again, until successful. This scene was our most important scene, we wanted this scene to be the most apparent and most meaningful scene from our parade. Then there was a scene in our performance in which we are moving from side to side in a circle, and then let go of our locked arms and then jump back. This scene signifies the ups and downs after crossing the border. It is not a celebration right after one crosses the border, it is only the beginning to a new journey in which one could either prosper, or fail at reaching their goals. After the swaying from side to side, the jump and landing on our feet represents the renewal to balance in our lives. After this is when we pull out our streamers which represent the beauty that life brings, along with happiness that life in a new land might be an improvement. Our exit which incorporated Iemanja’s motions represented our struggle to get money after being in a new land. 

I think that our performance should have been longer, I felt that we were to caught up in trying to incorporate meaning into every step that we did not elongate the performance to a reasonable length. I also believe that instead of just attributing our performance to immigration rights, we should have made it into a story instead of having general characteristics to immigration issues. This way our performance could have had much more of an impact on our audience. 

One of the things that I learned from our performance was that reading about dance movements and acting them out are two completely different things. While reading about such dances as samba, it is not easy to picture the dance moves, but when we would act these dances out, the movements came to life. Another thing which I learned is that I am not afraid to dance things which I have never attempted to dance, but I also realized that not everyone is so open to new forms of dancing, because even in class some people would not step out of their comfort zones. I’ve learned that dancing is something which makes me very happy. Even if I have no idea about whether I am doing a certain step right or wrong, the fact that I am attempting to be part of an art form is very exciting. I also realized from this experience that I love being able to teach people things, for example a few samba moves which stuck to me, I taught to my group, and the feeling that I was needed was a very good feeling that I doubt I will forget. 

Thursday, May 7, 2009

Oxum by Jorge Hernandez


Oxum is the goddess of fresh surface waters. Oxum is also the goddess of vanity and coquetry. She is also the most spontaneous of the orixas. She is in love with herself. She’s in love with her motion and can’t keep her eyes off herself. When Oxum comes down she is given a fan made from brass, which is her metal., and which she uses as a mirror when dancing.  She is also given a sword because she is a warrior. When she dances with the fan she holds it at eye level and sees herself as if she was looking at a mirror.


Oxum’s rhytm is ijexa. Ijexa is a calm 4/4 rhythm which means that with slick changes in the bell part, she becomes afoxe. Afoxe is not a specific rhythm to which all orixa choreographies are set in a non-spiritual ambience. Oxum steps in a zigzag pattern on heavy beats. Right crosses a little in front, left steps out; left crosses center and right steps out, etc. While doing this, her hips move back and forth, and her torso waves gently which each step. One hand is fully away from her body, holding a sword, and if she’s not holding the sword she is caressing her own hair and body while the other hand holds the mirror. When there’s no sword or mirror being used the dancer uses her palm as the mirror where she sees her own self. Oxum stands for her love that she has for herself and the acceptance of her own body.


I saw Mama Oxum at the waterfall

Sitting at the river shore

Gathering lilies, lilies, ay

Gathering lilies, lilies, ah

Gathering lilies to decorate our altar.

This song calls forth waterfalls and flowers to express the calmness and beautifulness of Oxum.

In the depths of the Ocean

There is a palace

Where Oxum lives

[there] lives the mermaid

[there] lives lemanja

[there] also live her children

Who have nowhere else to stay

In this song Oxum is in water living with a mermaid and Iemanja. Her sign is water thus the song has to do with the ocean. 

Oxum & her children

Oxum dances with glasses of water in her palms spilling forward the water that presents her tears. She does this when she enters the head of her child at the beginning of hymns or drums. It is said that the children of Oxum are those people that cry easily or all the time, the people whose eyes get watery over a sweet thought, and also those who are sweet and kind. On Saturdays but more in specific the Saturday nearest the feast day in December for Our Laday of the Conception, which is Oxum’s alter image, Oxum’s children get together at the waterfalls of Rio’s Tijuca forest and they offer her material signs of Oxum’s  sel-love, sensuality, sweetness, tears, and richness. Some of the things they leave her include : cups of water,honey, champagne, boiled eggs and black-eyed peas, makeup, combs, flowers, copper bracelets, and mirrors.

Oxum in Brazil

With her mirror and gold finery, Oxum has taken the role of the woman who is given to flirting. She still holds some affiliation with fertility, but she is better known as Ifa’s wife. Ifa is the original babalawo and  caretaker of secrets. Some of the things Oxum learned from Ifa were the divination system of the shell game and the power to know the future and control it. In Candomble myths,  priestesses got the right to practice divination from Oxum.

Works Cited:

Secrets, Gossip, and Gods: The Transformation of Brazilian Candomble

By paul Christopher Johnson-2005

Osun across the waters: a Yoruba goddess in Africa and the Americas

 by Joseph M. Murphy, Mei Mei Sanfor-2001

Samba: Resistance in motion

by Barbara Browning-1995


In the Yorùbá nation of Oyó in West Africa, Xangô is the fourth Alafin supreme king out of fourteen others who ruled for over four decades. His name is also known as Shango, Ṣàngó, or Changó in different regions. Xangô had a very fanciful notion and a very capricious nature. He was capture in moment of magic and used his power to his own benefit and not anyone else. He unintentionally cast down the lightning strikes on his own village causing the death of his own village members, wives, and even his own family. Some believe that after this legend, Xangô overwhelmed with grief, left his kingdom; while others believe that he had gotten kicked out of the kingdom. After not being able to rule anymore, Xangô killed himself. After Xangô realizing how people in the kingdom would make fun of him after his death, the kingdom then, begun to experience extremely severe as well as violent weathers. This type of attitude made those who supported Xangô very angry and not very pleased. After his death, he was deified and elevated into the statue to becaome one of the gods or Orishas as better known. The legend of Xangô is being reinforced every time the stones that are laid beneath the topsoil are revealed. Even though many might say that this story never happened, there is a high possibility that it existed in the ancient Yoruba history. According to the Yorùbá mythology, the most famous god of all was Xangô. He is recognized as the sky father, god of thunder and as one of the ancestor of Yoruba. Xangô rules over lightning, thunder, fire, justice, the drums, and dance. He had such a considerable temper that when he is in action, he will make every one witness the quickness with which lightning makes short work of a tree or a fire rage through an area.

Xangô is considered the owner of the sacred batá. Batá are a set of three double-headed, hourglass-shaped drums. The largest iyá, is the master drum. The iyá calls the rhythms in, calls changes and conversations. Itótele is the drum that follows next in size. Itótele means to follow completely. It follows the direction of the iyá answering the conversation calls and the rhythm changes. The smallest drum is the okónkolo, sometimes referred to as the Omele, for the most part; it plays ostinato patterns as well as changing rhythms from the calls of the iyá. A Bembe is an Afro-Cuban rhythm used in Santeria rites to evoke different Orishas of the Yoruban pantheon.

The Bembe Xangô honors ofcourse, Xangô. This type of rhythm can be played at many different tempos and still sound wonderful. Most musical ideas must be played in a narrow range of tempos; usually a 30 or 40 beat range to sound their best. If you play them too slow or too fast, they lose their savor. Bembe Shango has a great sound when you play it at 70 beats a minute and equally amazing at 600 bpm, nearly a factor of 10 ranges of tempos. It changes its character and sounds like a different rhythm at the different tempos. In usual performance, it seems to be performed at a tempo between 120 and 200 bpm. The type of clothing that Xangô wear was a skirt, but he would always have pants underneath.
Xangô ritual implement is represented by a double axe on his head, which shows the god of thunder. The double axe has also represented how he was born with war upon his head as well as they represent his really quick temper. He also contains six eyes as well as three heads. His symbolic animal is the ram. His colors were red and white with with gold adornment on his attire. It was regarded as being holy. In Brazil, Xangô is respected as a god of thunder and weather by the Umbandists. In Santeria, Xangô (Chango) is very similar to the Catholic saint named St. Barbara. He recognizes himself with the numbers four and six as well as Friday as his lucky day. Xangô also symbolizes passion, masculine vigor, and political aptitude. Xangô represents all these three things and more because he was an extremely hot blooded as well as a strong-genetic Orisha that loved all the pleasures of the world: dance, drumming, women, songs and eating. The relationship between Xangô and the sacred batá drums was detailed in the odu Ejila Sebora. It was seen as a friendship since Xangô childhood; therefore, he wuld sacrifies a batá as an arrangement for wealth and success and it would be achieved. “That is why the batá cannot leave Xangô.” If you were to Offer Xangô food, it had to be his favorite. Amalá was made out of cornmeal and palm oil, okra, bananas, red apples, red table wine, and bitter kola nut. He was so peaky that he did not accept rum or cigars as any kind of offering. by: Katerin Canales

Ogum and Oxossi


From its beginnings in the west coast of Africa, to its arrival and acceptance in Brazil, Candomble is a dynamic polytheistic religion with its own culture, history, and lifestyle. It is a religion that revolves around rituals, offerings, and dances; all for its several deities, more commonly known as orishas. Each orisha has its own: story, color, metal, and social role. Some orishas are related to others, some are individuals, and some have an interesting dynamic between each other. Perhaps the best example of this dynamic can be found in the relationship between Ogum, the warrior, and Oxossi, the hunter. Many of the deities were personified through saints in the early colonization of Brazil and throughout slavery, as only Catholicism was permitted. An example of this being Oxossi, who can be represented as St. Sebastian and St. George. This allowed the Africans to continue their practice of Candomble while having the appearance of partaking in Catholicism. Candomble would be non-existent in Brazil if the slaves did not disguise their religion in such a clever way.



Ogum is a fierce warrior, who is constantly at battle, as seen in his dances. His space is that of the forest, and often before arriving at battle, he must cut a path through the brush. He is typically dressed in blue, or green, and wields machetes. However, after arriving in battle, Ogum switches to a dagger and shield. This process can be described in Anna Scott’s Choreostories: “When he has two daggers, Ogúm fights without the shield, using the daggers to catch the weapon of his opponent. Finally, he spins around (all of this is done bouncing on the left leg) cutting down victims all around him.” He is the deity of metal and technology, and Anna B. Scott calls him the “deity of the 21rst century”.


Oxossi is said to be the brother of Ogum, and by others, his son. However, most view Oxossi as the partner of Ogum, as their talents complement each other well. Oxossi is a hunter and a wizard. He occupies the brushes, hence his color of green. Oxossi is commonly seen with a bow and arrow in hand and typically on the hunt for animals. He is an excellent tracker and finds paths in the most difficult of situations. His ability to get out of tight situations makes him the deity most called upon for those in arguments or negotiations (choreostories). Both Ogum and Oxossi are the deities of Iron.


When dancing at a ceremony for Ogum, the dancer typically tells the story of Ogum through their steps and motions. Starting with both arms being held back, as to be machetes, the dancer takes three steps to the right, throws their arms in their arm (symbolizing Ogums' cutting through the forest/creating a new path). This is then repeated in the opposite direction. Just as the story changes from the scene in the forest to the battlefield, so does the dance. The machete is no longer present, and the dagger and shield replace it. His dance evolves into fighting his opponents and slaying all those around him with hsi dagger (or daggers). The speed on the dance progresses with the tempo of the drums and the amount of action in the story. Variations of Ogum include the dancer dressed in either blue or green atire. The entirety of the dance brings to life the fierceness of Ogum, the warrior-general.


Just as Ogum, Oxossi’s dance tells his story. However, as a hunter, his story is about the chase of the animal. “He dances with a bow and an arrow mimetically rendered by holding out the index and thumb on both hands and touching the inside tip of one index finger to the tip of the opposite thumb; the right hand leads. With the hands in this position, the arms become a natural reign for his horse, while simultaneously serving as the bow (Scott).” His dance is accompanied by drums and the dancers' steps quicken with the drums. Throughout the dance, oxossi will step in a way as if he is on a horse. This steps mimics a sort of gallop, hands embracing the reigns. The dancer is typically dressed in a green robe/gown, and is sometimes accompanied with a bow, as well as an animal tail.

Connection and Partnership

As previously stated, Ogum and Oxossi are often viewed as partners, and for good reason. Ogum uses his machetes to cut through the forest in order to find his battlefield, but he calls on Oxossi to guide him. Oxossi, an expert hunter and tracker tells Ogum where to cut as he is known for finding paths where no one else can. Together, the pair can get out of any situation, or go anywhere they please. This partnership is recognized and many joint festivals have been held in their honor. Typically, deities have their own ceremony, for example the run de ogum, or festa de oxossi, but on certain occasions, a festa de oxossi e ogum may be thrown. This dynamic between Ogum and Oxossi is a unique one, and is not seen in any other orisha ceremony. While orishas such as Omolu and Nana are known to have a connection (as they are son and mother), Ogum and Oxossi are matched solely on how their attributes complement each other.


Ogum- The day of Tuesday is dedicated to Ogum and followers wear blue ceremonial outfits with green necklaces. Ogum is supposed to be mentioned first when making offerings to Orishas, as he is supposed to “make way for them”. Animal sacrifices are common during ceremonies for Ogum.


The cult of Oxossi is nearly dead in Africa, but is still practiced today in Brazil. The day dedicated to Oxossi is Thursday and common gifts or offerings to him include pigs, Axoxo, corn, and coconut. The parades thrown for Oxossi show him with his bow, arrow, shield, and animal tail (which is supposed to be a symbol of royalty).


Candomble is a complex religion with many specific rules, ceremonies, and especially dances. Each orishas is unique with its color, element, offering, purpose, and dance-steps. The dances performed for the orishas tell their story step by step, and the dancer follows the rhythm and tempo of the drums. Each hand movement or step in itself is telling a story, for example, the machetes (arms of the dancer) used in Ogum’s dance to show him cutting through the forest. These steps are just as eleaborate as the parades held for the orishas, which are typically only for one orisha at a time, that is with the exception of Oxossi and Ogum. These two collaborate and cooperate in order to make paths that would be impossible for any other deity.

Works Cited:
Scott, Anna B. Choreostories. Ms.
"Orixas." Orixas. 2007. E.CA. 3 May 2009 .
Fryer, Peter. Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil. Hanover: Wesleyan Unversity P, 2000.


Obatalá is one of the many Orixás in Canbomble, a sacred religious practice that takes place in Brazil. Of the many Orixás thought to exist, Obatalá is recognized as only one of the Seven African Powers. His name means “King of the White Cloth” and he represents peace, sober decision making, creativity,purity,and divination. The social role associated with him is that of an Elder or Sage and his elements or natural stages are the mountains, clouds, and palm trees. Some of the most distinctive features of Obatalá are the myth of creation that has been linked to him, the traditional offerings presented to him and the location of his supposed home, his “claim over individuals”, and the many associations with others saints and gods that he has received through time.

Obatalá’s Myth

According to one of the myths associated with Obatalá, Olorun gave Obatalá the responsibility of creating Earth in addition to giving him materials and instructions in order to accomplish this endeavor. However, instead of working and doing what he was commanded, Obatalá grew intoxicated with palm wine in the company of another deity. Oddudua, another one of the Orixás, took advantage of this situation and sought to create the world without the help of anybody. When the world was finally created by Odduda, Olorun was satisfied with what he beheld and was so delighted with it that he made Oddudua the God/Godess of the Earth. However, in return for his negligence, Obatalá was punished and was given the job of creating humans. Although Olorun is known for “breathing life into Obatalá’s creations”, Obatalá is considered “the father of humankind” because he actually creates them.

Another story associated with Obatalá is the one concerned with the manner in which he reached earth. The myth says that Obatalá used a chain constructed out of gold to climb down from the sky. His climb lasted a full week and when he reached earth, he created land from the sand he had brought with him. Obatalá called this land Ife, which means “land that divides waters”. As this new land surrounded by water had expanded, Obatalá walked around in order to get better acquainted with it. As he walked further, Obatalá grew thirsty and eventually stopped to rest in order to get a drink. As he stopped, he noticed clay near him and so began to create bodies made in his likeness.
This story also mentions that the deity Olorun sent a fireball to earth in order to warm the clay shapes Obatalá created. This fireball is also seen as the force that made the world begin to spin in the universe.

Obatalá’s "Children"

As the myth points out, Obatalá enjoyed drinking palm wine and continued to do so although it had previously led to his shame and humiliation. Due to his weakness for alcohol, he would even drink while carrying out his duties of molding and creating human bodies. Due to his carelessness, some of the beings he created were born with deformities and malformations so he was ordered by Olofi, another diety, to abstain from drinking while creating humans. Therefore, people born with birthmarks, albinos,the handicapped, or other children born with deformities are recognized as “Obatalá’s children”. This originates from the belief among people that “Obatalá always marks his children”. As creations of the Orixá Obatalá, this deity becomes their protector and patron so it is forbidden to mock or ostracize these individuals.

Offerings and Home

Traditionally, offerings to “King of the White Cloth” are comprised of coconut, cotton, cocoa butter, cornstarch, and bitter kola. This home of this deity is said to be the mountains, and for this reason gifts and food are carried to these specific regions. The metal of Obatalá is silver and his color is white, hence his name which means “King of the White Cloth”. His priests and priestesses always wear only white in his honor, and the vast majority of the offerings taken to Obatalá are white, such as white food, white clothes, white beads, and white flowers. Obatalá also tends to receive silver jewelry and coins. However, it is a tradition and well-known fact that Obatalá should never be offered palm wine or pine oil.

Obatalá, Owner of all Ori

Obatalá is said to be the owner of all ori, which means heads. All Orixás have the ability of acquiring or possesing a person, but it is believed that until that person is instructed and taken into the priesthood of another specific Orixá, Obatalá remains the owner of the “head”. This is an important concept because it is believed that the souls of people are located in their heads.

Obatalá’s Associations and Names

Due to his many qualities, this deity has also been associated with the crucified Jesus Christ, the Egyptian god Osiris, Krishna, and has been combined with Our Lady of Mercy in Santeria and with Our Lord of Bonfim in Bahia. In addition, he has been referred to in many ways, such as "Alamo Re Re (One Who Turns Blood Into Children); Alabalashe (Wielder of the Scepter of Life),; and O Ho Ho (Father of Laughter)".

The "King of Kings"

It has been claimed that Obatalá is one of the oldest Orixás and that he is the “King of Kings”. For this reason, he is also recognized as the father of all Orixás. He is known to have three wives, Yemoo, Yemaya, and Igbin. Obatalá is also believed to have sixteen paths, 8 female and 8 male. In addition, this deity is believed to be the only Orixá with male and female paths. For this reason, the actual gender of Obatalá is the cause of some debate. Some of his paths include Ayagunna, Oba Moro, Oba Lofun, Baba Acho, Obanla, Osanla, Ochanla, Yeku Yeku, Alaguema, and Osalufon. Although Obatalá’s traditional color is white, it is in occasion used with other colors such as red and purple, depending on his different paths. Despite the fact that the Orixá Obatalá is known to be patient and to posses good judgment, he is also believed to cause earthquakes when he becomes infuriated.

Works Cited;wap2

This blog has been posted by Sharon Velasquez

There are different types of religions all across the world. Analyzing them, it seems to me that we all believe in the same saints and god but we all give them different names and define them differently; some give them more details and importance while others just worship them and do not practice them. One of the religions that really practice its saints is Candomblé. Candomblé is a religion that originated in Bahia and is practiced in different countries, most popular, Brazil. Like any other religion, Candomblé contains different orixás—in Brazil they are African deities in which they are identified with one or more Catholic saints (Fryer, 14)—each is characterized by particular symbols: colors, songs, anecdotes, objects, animals, plants, and atmospheric phenomena (Fryer, 13). For example, Ọṣun, Oba, and Iansã are wives of another orixá named Ṣàngó, and all of them signify a specific dance that tells a story. Ọṣun is one of the orixás that has always been practiced throughout the world without people even realizing it.

Ọṣun is a female orixá which was married to Ṣàngó, god of thunder. She was Ṣàngó’s favorite wife because she seemed to be really gentle, generally speaking. She would also have frequent pregnancies which did not allow her to bond with her children and satisfy their needs as a mother. Beside her frequent pregnancies, she is also very beautiful which allows her to get what she wants. On the other hand, even though she was Ṣàngó’s favorite she had slept with almost all the male orixás and had their children.
Her name represents a river that flows southward through southwestern Nigeria and the Atlantic Gulf of Guinea. This river is known for a woman, Ọṣun, would disappear into the river when a traumatic event would frighten or anger her.
In Ọṣun’s dance, her accoutrement is a mirror. The palm facing of the hand facing the face while with the other hand, you brush it over your head as if you were combing your hair. Throughout time though, society has changed the length of how far they stroke the “hair,” since Ọṣun had beautiful long hair—river—they tend to stroke the hair further down. She is has so much self-importance that she loves to stare at her reflection through the mirror—waterfall—to get distracted from any events happening around her. Besides the hair representing the river and the mirror beauty, the mirror also represents a weapon. With a weapon you are able to keep an eye on your back, watch to see if anyone behind you is up to no good.
Another accouterment is jewelry. Jewelry was one of Ọṣun’s favorites. The way she puts on her jewelry is by lifting an arm, half ways up, and with the other hand she goes over the arm as if she I was putting on bracelets. Also, the jewelry on her arm illustrates that she has money and wealth, that she is an independent woman.
Ọṣun’s favorite metal, jewelry, is brass. Brass is a collection of ornaments or items made by a hard yellow shiny metal that is an alloy of zinc and copper, frequently with the addition of other metallic elements to impart specific properties (Encarta Dictionary).

Ọṣun symbolizes rivers, waterfalls, and spring. In her dance the way to symbolize a river is by pretending that you are combing your hair. While you comb your hair, you are mentioning that the river has some kind of water flow. Also, the way to symbolize a water fall, in Ọṣun’s dance, is by lifting up your palm and having it face you. The expressions are telling the audience that Ọṣun enjoys looking at her reflection by utilizing clean water. Therefore, first we have a waterfall, meaning that if there is a waterfall there is water flow, movement. Be aware though that every river has a bad component, where this piece symbolizes Ọṣun’s difficulties and dark paths. Next, she also represents spring; spring because it is the season of rebirth, where nature comes back to life and looks beautiful. Therefore, the best time to search for her is during the spring season, where the water is clear, the air is fresh, and the flowers are blooming.
Ọṣun associates with the color golden yellow, the number five, Fridays and Saturdays. She associates with yellow for many reasons. First, the color of brass and her jewelry is yellow. Also, she had a dress that she loved, in which it was white, but she wore it too much that it began to get faded and started turning into a yellowish color. Therefore, in the calling of Ọṣun people tend to wear as much yellow as possible; from the color of her dress, jewelry, mirror, and shoes. Also, she relates to the number 5, Friday and Saturday. The number five is important to her because according to myths, she was married to five different husbands. As a result, when people were necklaces to represent her love for jewelry, they wear five golden colored beads.
All the love she has for jewelry and beauty began to categorize her as a desirable diva. She likes to wear what looks good and does not care what society has to say about her. She represents beauty, sexuality, freedom, and independence. Ọṣun uses her great charms and sexuality to be able to get whatever she desires. For example, if she wants to have a baby, she knows that with her good looks and independence she will be able to seduce any man she wants.

Reasons why people like to call Ọṣun are because she is the orixá of love, beauty, intimacy, and wealth. People tend to call for her when they are going to get married, or have gotten married, about to have a child, and need financial help and beauty.

A great example of an artist from this day, is Beyonce.
Works Cited
Fryer, Peter. Rhythims of Resistance: Afican Musical Heritage in Brazil. Hanover: University Press of New England, 200.
This blog has been posted by Yesenia Colmenero.

History of Ossain’s origins
Ossain is one of the Orishas that is part of the Candomblé religion. As said in the article tittled Candomblé this religion was originated in the city of Salvador which is the capital of Bahia. This religion is based on the rituals that are performed by the Orishas. Another component of this religion is rituals and offerings. This religion was founded with the understanding of the African priests. Candomblé was not a very well known religion and even the Catholic Church did not accept it. Regardless all of the withdraws this religion faced it was able to survive and nowadays many of the attributes, gestures, movements are still present in the 21st century.
Ossain the God of the Herbs
As said in the internet source named, Ossain or Ossaniyn, Ossain is well known as being the God of the herbs; he had the power over the medical leaves. He did not like to work with plant that grows from a garden; he only works with the wild plants. Also as describe as the Herbalist Warrior because not only does he use the plants for the benefits of others he also uses them to make the poison that people use for their arrows in order to defend themselves from the enemies. Not only is he such an important god, but without him no ceremony can take place. His presence is needed while a ceremony is taking place. Ossain knows the power that many herbs have, for example some of the herbs help people with having luck, misery or accidents. Many of the other Orishas did not have any power related with the plants, this means that they depended on Ossain to have a healthy life. Ossain seems to be one of the most important Orishas and plays the role of being the curer of all the other Orishas. In a way this means that he plays the role of a doctor as it would be called nowadays. Although he is in chanrge of looking out for the health of the other Orishas not all of them seem to be gateful. This was the case with the Orisha named Xangó who get the possession over Ossain’s leaves. This gives the understanding that some of the other Orishas may have envy his power to the point that they wanted to have the power and to know the secrets of cure that is behind the leaves. Ossain is the one and only owner of the knowledge that it is required to have in order to released the power and benefits of the leaves. Because he is the only one that knows the secrets of the leaves he has become a figure to be well known as not only a doctor, but also as a doctor.
">’s Appearance
Ossain has specific physical characteristics that distinguish him from the other Orishas. He lives alone in the mountains and there he spends most of his time. Ossain only has one eye, one leg, one arm, and one of his ears is small and the other one is large. This makes him stand up next to the other Orishas that have their pair of legs, eyes and ears under perfect conditions.

Religion after Ossain
Ossain is the God of the herbs and he had followers. These people were called the Ossainistas. These people had to be able to learn and memorize all the sacred songs. Also these followers may be females or males, but in the case of the females they have to wait until they go through their menopause to participate and be present in the ceremonies. It seams to be that the males have the superiority over the women because they are able to participate and observe the ceremonies no matter the time and stage of their lives. The followers most have been greatly rewarded for believing in Ossain. Many people just know him as Ossain but his followers know that his whole name is Ossain Aguenegui Aguaddo and also well known as Kuri Kuri and also as Ossain Agguchuiye.

Ossain’s Movements
As seen in the video below named, Ossain! O Conhesedor das folhas!! Ossain’s movement consists of dancing in circles and moving his hands. He continues to go in circles until it comes to a point that he opens his arms and then puts his right hand as a fist on top of his left had in the form of a fist as well. Once he has his hands in that position he starts to do a rotational movement representing him pounding the herbs that he uses to cure others. Then after these movements he lowers himself to the ground and starts to mimic as if he was making a hole in the dirt. He stays mimicking that he is making a whole for a while and then he comes back up and starts to move his body and moves his arms in semi circles. When he is moving his arms at this point Ossain is curing all the ones that are in his presence. This shows how this ceremony takes place in order for him to be able to perform his powers.

Ossain is an Orisha that has many qualities that make him who he was and why he acted the way he did. Many of his important qualities that make his personality are the following, quite, nervous, nostalgic, and tireless. Also he is very generous and loves animals especially the birds. The bird is one of the animals that have been an important part of the life Of Ossain. One of the main parts of his personality parts is that he was very studious, this makes perfect sense do to the fact that he was a doctor and the master of the leaves. He must have very well have known all the important and key things that were needed to be known about the wild leaves. He was balanced and did not trust that others could keep their secrets to themselves. Meaning that he would have never told anyone the secrets that he knows about the leaves because he knew that he secret was not going to be well saved. Even though he did not like to do the evil, he was capable and if he ever decided that he wanted to do wrong by using the leaves no one could be able to stop him because he was the only one to know the secrets of how to make the leaves cure.

By: Jenniffer Avalos